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长壁采煤机截割头轴承选择方案比较
发布者:admin 发布时间:2015/4/2 8:51:08 阅读:143

  一辆BJ2020S吉普车的492QA发动机大修后行驶不足3000km时,突然机油压力报警灯亮,发动机熄火再也发动不着。经拆检发现:发动机的2、3缸烧瓦抱轴;用手转动机油泵主动轴时转不动;油底壳内有一段铁丝,分解机油泵发现,泵内也有一根约10mm长铁丝;主动轴与主动齿轮间的传动销已被剪切断裂。因此,上述烧瓦抱轴故障的原因是发动机运转时连杆螺栓锁紧铁丝断裂后,随机油被吸入机油泵内卡住主动齿轮,导致机油泵不供油,使轴颈与轴瓦之间缺少润滑油,失去了液体摩擦条件,使之温度升高,合金熔化烧结,造成烧瓦抱轴机损事故。以下是发动机在使用过程中常见的轴瓦损伤形式、轴瓦烧蚀的原因和轴瓦使用中应注意的事项。

  1、常见轴瓦损伤形式

  a.轴瓦疲劳损伤。发动机经常超负荷工作,加之机油品质不符合要求,润滑不良,从而引起轴瓦摩擦过热,金属材料产生疲劳,致使轴瓦合金表面出现破碎剥落损伤。

  b.轴瓦机械损伤。轴瓦表面材质较软,若在装配中轴瓦不干净,润滑油道内存有机械杂质,加之轴颈与轴瓦配合间隙过小,润滑不良,内摩擦产生的热量不易散出,均会拉伤轴瓦,形成条状伤痕。

  c.腐蚀损伤。机油油质不纯,含有化学杂质(酸性氧化物),造成腐蚀性氧化,一般在高温下比较严重。

  d.气蚀现象。轴瓦气蚀现象是由于发动机转速突变,引起机油流速改变,机油中产生气泡,气泡破裂时产生的压力连续冲击轴瓦合金表面,导致合金表面出现点蚀现象。

  2、常见轴瓦烧蚀的原因

  2.1  选用的材料低劣或装配不当

  a.选用的轴瓦材质不符合规定,加工制造质量差;

  b.轴瓦的表面合金层几何形状有偏差,壁厚不均,各道轴颈的直径偏差过大,表面粗糙度高,瓦背与承孔结合面较差,轴瓦高度不符合要求;

  c.轴颈与轴瓦配合间隙不当,机油压力过低,机油供给不足;

  d.装配时不注意清洁,使用不干净油品,灰尘杂质粘附在轴颈与轴瓦之间,加剧其摩擦。

  2.2  机油质量不佳

  未按规定使用机油,甚至加注低劣假冒油品,含水分、杂质多,粘度大,流动性差,抗氧化、抗腐蚀能力差,热量带走缓慢。使用中容易结胶和积炭,老化变质,高速运转时粘度大幅度下降,油膜强度低,配合副润滑不良而加剧磨损。

  2.3  机油压力不符合要求

  a.油道堵塞,润滑油供给不畅;

  b.滤网堵塞,机油滤清器滤芯失效,机油泵工作不良,润滑系统供油不足。

  2.4  违章操作

  a.发动机冷机起动时,机油尚未充分进入润滑表面,就以很高转速或大负荷运转,致使润滑效果不良;若发动机长时间高转速或大负荷运转,使机油温度升高,粘度下降,破坏了摩擦副表面油膜的形成,使之形成半干摩擦,加剧其磨损。

  b.维护不及时,不按时清洗机件、疏通油道、添加或更换机油,导致机油老化或过脏,堵塞油道,加剧磨损。

  3、轴瓦使用中应注意的事项

  发动机轴瓦如果使用得当,维护合理,不仅可减少机械事故,降低消耗,而且可延长其使用寿命。但若维修质量不佳,使用不当,很容易出现烧瓦抱轴的早期损坏现象。使用中的注意要点如下:

  a.注意选择合适的机油,尤其是进口轿车,使用的机油应以相应的国产机油代用。

  b.机油滤清器应定期维护,根据使用条件,一般在3000km-4000km更换一次滤芯为宜。装用的机油泵应是经过台架性能试验的合格产品;装机使用的限压阀及安全阀等都应是经过性能试验的合格产品;使用合格的润滑油料。

  c.发动机起动前,应认真检查润滑油量,不足时应按标准添加;冷车起动时应先在怠速空负荷下运转3min-5min,然后再逐渐过渡到高速或大负荷运转;使用中严禁发动机在超负荷下长时间运转,避免急加速;汽车行驶中如发现机油压力报警灯亮,应查明原因并妥善处理后方可继续运行。

  d.更换轴瓦时,应检查其轴颈的圆度和圆柱度,若超限应予修磨,以免造成轴颈、轴瓦的接触面积减少,单位面积压力增大;应严格控制曲轴轴向间隙,若磨损超限时应予及时修复。

  e.维修时应检查润滑系统各零部件,要齐全有效;发动机重要零件不能代用(如不能用铁丝代替开口销等),避免工作失效、松脱引起事故。轴瓦与轴颈配合间隙要合适,配合间隙过小会使机油流动阻力增大,流量减少,轴瓦散热困难,造成半干摩擦引起烧瓦;配合间隙过大则油膜建立不起来,机油压力下降,并会产生撞击异响。

  f.选用新件时,应注意轴瓦长度的检查,轴瓦过短不能保证其与轴颈的可靠贴合、良好散热;轴瓦过长时接口处产生变形,会导致啮轴现象。

  g.发现轴瓦露铜而无疲劳裂纹时,则不属于磨蚀损坏,如正常润滑可继续使用,但应增加换油次数。

 
 

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